·         Arousal

·         The Brain

·         Exercise

·         Indoor Air Pollution

·         Muscle Tension

·         Nutrition

·         Posture

·         Sensory Processing

·         Sleep

·         Other Suggestions


Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?





·           Office Chairs

·           The Pelvis

·           Poor Posture

·           Posterior Pelvic Tilt

·           Products

·           Rounded Shoulders

·           Sinking Seat Cushions

·           Sitting for Long Periods

·           Slouching

·           Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

·           Tips

·           Tilting Footrests

·           Weak Adductors

·           Weak Glutes

·           Weak Hamstring Muscles

·           Weak Shoulders

·           Winged Scapula


Office Chairs


"…Make sure that your office chair and work area is as comfortable as possible and causes the least amount of stress to your spine"

Reducing back pain while sitting in office chairs


·        "Your legs and your back should be at a 90-degree angle.

·        Your seat pan should extend about 1 inch on either side of your legs and should not cause any significant pressure to the back of your knees.

·        Your weight should be evenly distributed and your buttocks, your hips and your knees should be at about a 90-degree or 'L' angle.

·        The surface of the computer chair seat should be flat.

·        Always sit with your knees lower than your hips.

·        Always try to slightly recline the computer chair since reclining will ease pressure off your lower back." Selecting a Cheap Computer Chair



Make you can move back far enough in your chair so that only your fist is able to pass easily behind your calf and in front of the seat. If you can’t move far enough back, you may be able to adjust your chair. Try to avoid sitting on the edge of your chair.


Things to Avoid

·        “A work chair, or dining chair, [this also applies to car seats] with a backward sloping seat is to be avoided.

·        This forces you to hunch forward in a strained posture.

·        Unfortunately, there are many examples of this type of chair [this type of chair is very common].

·        The best work chairs allow the seat to be angled slightly forward so that the back of the seat pan is 2-3 inches higher than the front. More office chairs are being designed with a seat angle facility. Ideally this is independent of the seat height and backrest adjustments.

·        There are also wedge shaped cushions easily available which can be used to improve horizontal or backward sloping dining or work chairs, or car seats.”

The Campaign for Better Seating: 'The Work Chair'


Related Topics

·         Sinking Seat Cushions


The Pelvis

How to Check for Misalignment

“The pelvis can assume many types of malalignments in different planes, but we will only focus on pelvic alignment in the sagittal plane [otherwise known as the anterior/posterior plane; an imaginary line that divides the body into right and left halves]. The most common deviation seen is excessive anterior pelvic tilt [lumbar lordosis]. This faulty alignment can be seen in the picture to the right [see linked page below].

     To measure this, first we must locate 2 main structures, the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) [please see diagram], which will be a large bony structure about a 45 degree angle inferior and lateral [lower and to the side] to the umbilicus [navel or bellybutton]. Now [locate] the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS). Trace the ilium [please see diagram] around from the ASIS to the back of your client. It will be seen as a large dimple. Refer to a massage therapist or other health professional with palpatory skills if you are not sure or cannot find it. Now, with one finger on each structure, kneel down and view your client [this article was written for health professionals who perform examinations] from the side. Which is higher, the ASIS, or PSIS? In most cases, the PSIS is significantly higher than the ASIS. This is called an anterior pelvic tilt. The pelvis is tipped more anterior [front] than posterior [back]. Don’t be mislead, some degree of anterior pelvic tilt is normal. What we are looking for here is excessive tilt, anything beyond 10 degrees.”

How to Improve Muscle Balance and Stability for Increased Performance: Part 3: 'Faulty Alignment of the Pelvis' by Sam Visnic


Related Topics


·         Posture: Common Postural Deficiencies

·        Posture: Posterior Pelvic Tilt

·        Posture: Lumbar Lordosis

·        Posture: Weak Hamstring Muscles: Lower Back, Pelvis Misalignment

·         Posture: Forward Head Posture: Some Other Important Facts & Factors: Posture, Disc Compression, Nerve Entrapment, Etc.

·        Posture: Back and Neck Problems: Exercises for Lower Back Pain: Stretching and strengthening exercises

·         Posture: Weak Adductors: Knee Pain



·        Exercise: Abdominals: Purpose

·        Exercise: Swiss Ball Exercises: Exercises


Vision and Muscle Tension

·        Vision: Bates Method: Maximize the Effect of the Bates Method: Tension



·        Hearing: Hyperacusis: Suggestions: Stretching and Strengthening


Dehydration, Urinary Incontinence in Men

·         Other Suggestions: Dehydration: Things to Consider: Urinary Incontinence: Urinary Incontinence In Men



·         Dolfzine: Sam Visnic: 'Muscle Balance: Faulty Alignment of the Pelvis (Part III)'

·        'How to Improve Muscle Balance and Stability for Increased Performance Part 3-Faulty Alignment of the Pelvis' by Sam Visnic


Poor Posture

·        Posture: Poor Posture


Posterior Pelvic Tilt (Flat Back)

What is Posterior Pelvic Tilt?

·        “Sometimes referred to as flat back

·        Involves the reduction of the natural lumbar curvature.

·        This posture is characterized by

·        It is rarely brought about by lack of muscular strength.

·        The posterior pelvic tilt is less common as the anterior tilt as seen with lordosis.” Common Postural Deficiencies: Posterior Pelvic Tilt



 “Example preventative / corrective exercises:

·        Hip Flexor: Lever Hip Flexion

·        Hamstrings: Lying Hamstring Stretch

·        Gluteus: Seated Glute Stretch

·        Abdominal: Abdominal Stretch Common Postural Deficiencies: Posterior Pelvic Tilt


Things to Avoid

“Examples of affected exercises [avoid]:

·        Leg Press [targets the glutes]

·        Squat [targets the quads]

·        Straight Leg Deadlift” [targets the hamstrings] Common Postural Deficiencies: Posterior Pelvic Tilt



“In many countries, especially in Asia, people sit on a Zabuton mat or cushion on the floor to work at a computer. Research by Professor Kageyu Noro and colleagues has shown that an ergonomic design for this cushion that provides better pelvic support results in a better floor-seated posture. This cushion reduced the rear [posterior] rotation of the pelvis and the flexion of back.”


Related Topics

·        Posture: Common Postural Deficiencies

·        Posture: Lumbar Lordosis



Lumbar Supports

Note: Lumbar supports are also referred to as ‘lumbar cushions’ and ‘lumbar rolls’.


If your lumbar support is too big, it may push you forward, and cause you to sit too close to the edge of your seat.

·        Posture: Office Chairs: Tips


Make Your Own

“You can also make your own lumbar roll by rolling up a towel smoothly and wrapping it with tape.

·        Try out different sizes and different types of towels until you find one that offers support to your lower back when sitting and feels comfortable against the small of your back.

·        The roll should fit in the small of your back, providing some pressure on the area and helping you to maintain the natural arch.”

The Rodale Center for Women's Health: 'The Female Body: An Owner's Manual' (excerpt)


Note: If you decide to use a roll of paper towels as a lumbar support, I would recommend the quilted variety. Quilted paper towels seem to be more resilient.

·        “Roll a hand towel into a comfortable shape and tape it to your chair's backrest at a height that fits the small of your back.

·        Or use a partial roll of paper towels or small pillow.”
Back Designs, Inc.: 'The Homemade Ergonomic Office'


“You can make your own lumbar roll using foam and covering it with a pillowcase; just be careful that the roll itself isn't causing [uncomfortable] pressure anywhere.

CareCure Forums: Spinal Cord Injury Community Forums: Care: Slumping in Chair


Manufactured Lumbar Supports

·  Chair Cushion Accessories


Things to Consider

·        Posture: Lumbar Lordosis: Things to Avoid: Lumbar Supports, Increases in the Seat Angle


Rounded Shoulders

·           Posture: Rounded Shoulders


Sinking Seat Cushions

·          Froogle Search: +cushion +sinking


“Millions of people throughout the world have to sit all day; yet being confined to a chair, car or bed all day can be agony because of pressure points. In a world of microchips and other fantastic inventions nobody seemed able to solve the pressure point problem at a marketable price until Australian inventor Joan Stuckey addressed the problem. Technically C'airecush is a pressure distributing seat with a highly sophisticated airflow system. It gives superb comfort and relief to anyone who has to sit or lie all day. It is an air cushion that exercises joints from toes to hips. It is ideal for

·          Air and coach travelers,

·          Typists and business people who sit for long periods,

·          Convalescents and invalid patients.”       

Air Support Cushion / C'Airecush Office Chair Seat Aid


“A major portion of the vibration experienced by the occupants of an automobile enters the body through the seat [14]. Whole-body vibrations, which are vertical vibrations, tend to affect the human body the most. These vibrations are transmitted to the buttocks and back of the occupant along the vertebral axis via the base and back of the seat [16]. Since the natural frequency for the human trunk falls in the range of 4-8 Hz, it is expected that the whole-body vibrations that will most largely affect passengers will occur in this frequency range.”

Virginia Tech: 'A Study of the Effect of Varying Air-Inflated Seat Cushion' by Akua B. Ofori-Boateng (643 KB; requires Adobe Acrobat Reader)


Related Topics

·         Office Chairs


Sitting for Long Periods

·          “For long periods of sitting, choose a straight-back chair.

  • Sit firmly back in it
  • with your shoulders against the chair,
  • your chest lifted, and
  • your upper back straight.
  • Put a small lumbar roll against your lower back for additional support.
  • Put equal weight on your left and right sit bones.
  • Your feet should be flat on the floor, and
  • your [upper] legs horizontal.
  • If the chair is too high for this, use a phone book or small stool as a foot rest.

·          When working at a desk,

  • Angle your work so that you are not looking down.
  • Lean forward at your hips, bringing your whole trunk forward, rather than bending at the waist or neck.” Posture Perfect


You may also need to adjust your monitor viewing distance:

·         Computer Monitor Viewing Distance and Angle




Rugs, Floor Mats

Rugs or floor mats can reduce slouching by preventing feet, or tilting footrests, from sliding.



Comfortable sneakers or shoes, or even just going barefoot, can be helpful for preventing feet from sliding.


Related Topics

·          Forward Head Posture

·          Rounded Shoulders

·          Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

·          Research Topics: Posture Control Insoles


Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

·        Posture: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome




·           TechTV: Take it Easy

·          Back Designs, Inc.: 'The Homemade Ergonomic Office'

·  Posture Perfect


Piano Posture

“I use my piano posture when I’m at the computer. More specifically:

1) Feet flat on the floor a natural distance apart. Your knees should be at right angles.

2) Back straight. This may seem obvious, but try to remind yourself of it. With the exception of REALLY nice office chairs, your back shouldn’t touch the back of the chair.

3) Wrists straight. Adjust your chair so your hands reach the keyboard easily without having to reach up or bend down. (I have to sit on a phonebook myself) To train yourself, it helps to have one of those pads that sit lengthwise in front of your keyboard [a wrist rest]. If you have to reach up your shoulders get tense, and if you have to reach down you tend to slump.

The key is right angles. Your arms should bend at the elbow into right angles, your back should be at right angles with your lap, and your legs should be bent at right angles. It takes a little getting used to, so maybe putting a sticky note on your monitor that says “posture?” to remind yourself would help.

I have to admit it feels kind of stiff at first, but as your posture improves it becomes easier to do.”


Tilting Footrests


“Footrests are used to bring the floor up to those users that need it.

·          With the standard desk height of around 710 mm (originally established for paperwork rather than computing), this includes many people of medium height, both men and women.

·          If when you sit with your fingertips on the middle row of the keyboard (with your elbows at right angles and your wrists flat) you have noticeable pressure on the underside of the thighs, you need one.

·          Design quality is generally poor for these products, and they often fail to achieve their aims, so choose carefully or make your own.”

Open Ergonomics: Safe Office Practice: Footrests



Tilting footrests can reduce leg tension and neck tension, and can also reduce pressure on your lower back. Tilting footrests also increase circulation.



Some tilting footrests can be expensive. I was once able to buy one on sale at a local office supply store for $4.50 (USA).


Things to Avoid

Footrest is Too High, Chair is Too Low

If your footrest is too high, or your chair is too low, you may be tempted to lean back in your chair. Over time, leaning back can cause pain and discomfort.

     Also, when sitting, your knees should be level, or lower, than your hips. This posture allows part of your weight to be distributed to your feet.


Weak Adductors

·        Posture: Weak Adductors


 Weak Glutes


“Weak glutes are typically related to

·          Tight hip flexors and

·          Overactive lumbar erectors [lower back] (and sometimes hamstrings [back of the upper leg]).”

Vegan Fitness: Vegan Fitness Forum Index -> Power and Strength



Hip Flexors (stretch)

Note: The following stretches only stretch the hip flexors. They do not exercise the glutes.

·          “…Loosen up the hip flexors (e.g.

·         warrior lunge stretch,

·         Bulgarian split-squat EQIs)…”

Vegan Fitness: Vegan Fitness Forum Index -> Power and Strength


·          “As the psoas [hip flexors] and rectus femoris [quads] neurologically shorten from prolonged sitting,

·          the ilia [hip bones] are pulled in an anterior/inferior direction,

which results in excessive lumbar lordosis when standing.

     Compensations from this swayback condition often lead to

·          Thoracic hyperkyphosis,

·          Forward head postures and typical upper crossed asymmetries.

Researchers estimate that up to 75 percent of chronic neck/back pain clients will present with one or both of these crossed patterns.”

Erik Dalton: Articles: Simplifying the Pain Puzzle


· Hip Exercise Menu: Hip Flexors


Glutes (exercise)

·          “…Activate the glutes (e.g.

  • Supine bridges,
  • Kneeling squats, and
  • Single-leg exercises).”

 Vegan Fitness: Vegan Fitness Forum Index -> Power and Strength


· Hip Exercise Menu: Gluteus Maximus

· Muscles: Gluteus Maximus (additional information)

·         Posture: Back and Neck Problems: Exercises for Lower Back Pain

·         Ron Jones: CORE: "Supine" Bridge (Face Up)

·        Dolfzine: Sam Visnic: 'Muscle Balance: Faulty Alignment of the Pelvis (Part III)' (contains information about the supine bridge exercise as well as other topics)

·        'How to Improve Muscle Balance and Stability for Increased Performance Part 3-Faulty Alignment of the Pelvis' by Sam Visnic

·         EasyVigour: Recommended Reading: 'Engage Gluteus maximus!' (Note: this page contains a photo of a half-naked bushman who has extraordinarily large buttocks)


Additional Stretching

·          “You'll also want to do some stretching for your

  • Hamstrings and
  • Lumbar erectors [lower back].”

Vegan Fitness: Vegan Fitness Forum Index -> Power and Strength


· Waist Exercise Menu: Erector Spinae (lumbar erectors)

· Common Orthopedic Inflexibilities: Hamstrings Inflexibility


Related Topics       

·        Posture: Lumbar Lordosis: Effects

·        Posture: Back and Neck Problems: Exercises for Lower Back Pain


Things to Avoid

Overcompensation: Posterior Pelvic Tilt (Flat Back)

·        Posterior Pelvic Tilt


Weak Hamstring Muscles

What are the Hamstrings?

Hamstrings are the muscles in back of the knee and thigh that bend the knee. Hamstrings


Lower Back Pain

"Another cause of low back pain is weak hamstring muscles..."

Hip injuries: Snapping hip syndrome (tight iliotibial band) (PDF, 2.96 MB)


Lower Back, Pelvis Misalignment

"A common mistake…is spending less time strengthening the hamstring muscle group, the muscles that oppose the quadriceps [front of leg]. Weak hamstrings can cause misalignment of the

·          pelvis and

·           low back."

Hip injuries: Snapping hip syndrome (tight iliotibial band) (PDF, 2.96 MB)


Thigh Exercises and Stretches

"Maintain good knee strength and flexibility and warm up before activities. The hamstring stretch and the knee-to-chest exercise are examples of exercises you can do to strengthen and stretch the leg muscles, especially the muscles in the thigh (quadriceps and hamstring)."

Knee Problems and Injuries: Prevention


Without Exercise Machines

·  Hip Extension


With Exercise Machines

·  Knee Flexion



"Hamstrings Weakness

Increased risk of knee injury (instability) during knee extension activities, specifically when knees are flexed lower than 90°. Hamstrings / Quadriceps strength ratios should be greater than 56% to 80% depending on the population tested…" Common Muscular Weaknesses


Things to Consider

·          Posture: Weak Glutes


Winged Scapula

·           Posture: Winged Scapula


Weak Shoulders


Shoulder Shrugs

"This exercise

·        Loosens up the tension in the shoulders and

·        Relaxes upper back"

Edgar Cayce Australia: Exercise Set for Maintaining a Flexible Spine


"Shoulder shrugs and scapular retraction is encouraged to

maintain the tone of the shoulder girdle."

Georgetown University Sports Medicine/ Shoulder Service


"Breathe naturally through your nose relaxing your lips and tongue. Inhaling shrugging your shoulders to your ears. Exhale completely lowering your shoulders away from your ears as your shoulder blades slide down your back."

YogaEverywhere: Yoga for Travel: Shoulder Shrugs


"Shoulder shrug exercise is an effective tool to relax the muscles around the thoracic outlet" Thoracic Outlet Syndrome


Related Topics

·         Muscle Tension: Upper Extremity and Neck Flexibility



Back to 'Posture'