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Research Topics


My Theories

Former Theories



The Cause of Internet and TV Addiction?




·          Humidification

·          Breathing Exercises

·          Respiratory Acidosis

·          Related Topics



What is Humidification?

"Humidification is not necessary for all patients; however, adding a humidifier to your system may resolve symptoms experienced by some people:

·        Nasal congestion, dryness, or tenderness

·        Mouth breathing (commonly referred to as 'mouth leak')

·        Dry throat"

ResMed: Humidification


Things to Avoid: Mouth Breathing

"If you breathe through your mouth, you may develop a dry throat. By breathing through your mouth, you bypass your nose, which is responsible for two-thirds of humidification. This means that you've tripled the humidification workload of your upper airway. If you add positive airway pressure on top of that you may start to experience stronger symptoms. Even if you're only exhaling through your mouth, you are still losing valuable moisture because you aren't allowing your nose to recover the moisture your body invested in the air as you 'inhaled' it."

ResMed: Humidification


"A 1997 study found that nasal symptoms cause mouth breathing and that mouth breathing causes nasal symptoms. Because one symptom causes another, a vicious cycle can develop. For example, some congestion leads to mild mouth breathing that can worsen the congestion that causes more severe mouth breathing."

ResMed: Humidification


Measuring Humidity

“Many growers use the word humidistat generically to indicate an instrument that measures relative humidity and/or an instrument designed to maintain a specific level of humidity.

Before launching ourselves into this discussion we need to define two terms.

·          Hygrometer (humidity indicator) is a term used for instruments that provide a direct reading measurement of current relative humidity.

·          Humidistat refers to instruments that are designed to maintain a set level of humidity just as a thermostat is designed to maintain a specific temperature level.

Humidistats may or may not give a reading or the current humidity level.”

Orchid Culture: Humidity Indicators and Relative Humidity


“We have several inexpensive direct-reading humidity indicators scattered around the greenhouse. We use them to indicate the current level of moisture compared to the moisture indicated at a prior reading. Some comparisons we might make are

·          Today's reading relative to the numbers shown at about the same time on the preceding day or

·          After the plants have been recently watered.

·          We also compare an afternoon reading to the first reading in the morning.”

Orchid Culture: Humidity Indicators and Relative Humidity


“We use these comparisons as follows.

·          If a humidity indicator reads lower than it did on preceding days or

·          If it doesn't show an increase to normal levels at night,

we know that our plants need to be watered.

     By using the daily readings this way, any gradual change in the accuracy of the readings is not significant, so it doesn't matter if the instrument is exactly accurate or what the precise number was a few days ago.

·          All that matters is whether the current reading dropped below the prior daily levels at about the same time of day at about the same temperature.

·          It is also of concern if the reading does not increase enough when temperatures decline.”

Orchid Culture: Humidity Indicators and Relative Humidity


“For growers in the USA, the least expensive we've found is $4.25 from Charley's Greenhouse Supply in Mt. Vernon, WA., 800-322-4707. Usual disclaimers apply, no affiliation or benefit to us.) [Hygrometers can also be found in some hardware stores, and some garden stores, in the thermostat section. I purchased a thermometer/hygrometer at Lowe’s home improvement store for about $5.00 (USA)]”

Orchid Culture: Humidity Indicators and Relative Humidity


·          Charley's Greenhouse


Breathing Exercises


"Breathing exercises

·          May help strengthen the muscles that inflate and deflate the lungs,

·          But they do not directly improve lung function.

·          Still, breathing exercises decrease the likelihood of lung complications after surgery in heavy smokers and others with lung disease.

·           Such exercises are particularly helpful for sedentary people who have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or those who have been put on a ventilator."

The Merck Manual: Chapter 40: Section 4


Blinking and Breathing Exercise

·          Vision: Bates Method: Four Simple Exercises: Blinking and Breathing


Respiratory Acidosis

What is Respiratory Acidosis?

"Respiratory acidosis occurs when the lungs cannot remove all of the carbon dioxide (a normal by-product of metabolism) produced by the body. Because of this disturbance of the acid-base balance, body fluids become excessively acidic."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


"If you do not breathe deeply enough or often enough, you may develop

·          A high blood bicarbonate level

·          (And low blood pH [acidic])."

WebMD: Bicarbonate


"The body will correct the [acidic] pH by retaining bicarbonate (a base)."

Genetic Information and Patient Services, Inc. (GAPS): Acidosis



·          Nutrition: Electrolytes: What are Electrolytes?



Causes: Lung Disease

"Respiratory acidosis can be a consequence of any lung disease that prevents removal of carbon dioxide. Common lung diseases that lead to respiratory acidosis include:

·          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),

·          Severe asthma, or

·          Airway obstruction."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


Causes: Other Causes

"Other conditions that may lead to respiratory acidosis include:

·          Obesity hypoventilation syndrome,

·          Excessive fatigue of the diaphragm or muscles of the rib cage, or

·          Severe deformities of the spine and rib cage (for example, severe scoliosis)."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


"This condition is called respiratory acidosis and can be caused by

·          a reaction to a medication,

·          a head injury,

·          a chronic lung disease (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), or

·          fluid buildup in the lungs (pulmonary edema)."

WebMD: Bicarbonate


·          "While acute respiratory acidosis results from a sudden failure of the respiratory system,

·          Chronic respiratory acidosis usually occurs secondary to disorders such as

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease],
  • Respiratory muscle fatigue,
  • Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (pickwickian syndrome), as well as
  • A host of restrictive pulmonary [lung] diseases"

Mesothelioma-Asbestosis.Info: Respiratory Acidosis


"Possible causes include

·          Obstructive or restrictive respiratory conditions,

·          an acute airway obstruction,

·          Bracing of the thoracic cage due to injury or pain,

·          Limitation of respiratory excursion due to extreme obesity, or

·          Conditions affecting respiratory muscles or the nerves and pathways that drive them"

NetScut: Acidosis


Typical Symptoms

"Symptoms of the diseases [lung diseases] that cause respiratory acidosis are usually noticeable, and may include

·          Shortness of breath,

·          Easy fatigue,

·          Chronic cough, or

·          Wheezing."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


Severe Cases

"In severe cases, the carbon dioxide builds up very quickly, leading to severe disturbances in the acid-base balance of the blood."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


"When respiratory acidosis becomes severe,

·          Confusion,

·          Irritability, or

·          Lethargy

may be apparent"

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


Chronic Respiratory Acidosis

"In chronic respiratory acidosis, mild impairment of the lungs' ability to remove carbon dioxide occurs over a long period of time, leading to a stable situation. This is because the kidneys increase their retention of bicarbonate to maintain an acid-base balance in the blood that is almost normal."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


Signs and Tests

·          "A chest x-ray or CAT scan may be done to diagnose possible lung disease

·          Pulmonary function tests may help diagnose lung disease

·          Arterial blood gases help assess the severity of the respiratory acidosis, and may detect abnormal oxygen levels"

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis



Treament: Treating the Underlying Causes

"Treatment is aimed at the underlying lung disease.

·          Smoking cessation is extremely important

·          Bronchodilator drugs may reverse some airway obstruction [counteracting histamine]

·          Oxygen may be necessary if the blood oxygen level is low"

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


·          Other Suggestions: Breathing: Respiratory Acidosis: Causes


Treatment: Severe Respiratory Acidosis

"Non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation or mechanical ventilation may be necessary if the respiratory acidosis is severe"

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


Note: The following excerpt is intended for information purposes only. If you believe that you have severe respiratory acidosis please see your doctor.

·          "While the underlying cause of acidosis should be corrected, if plasma bicarbonate is less than 5 mmol/L, immediate correction with bicarbonate is indicated. 

·          The bicarbonate should be administered in hypotonic solution and given as a continuous infusion [process of intravenously giving medication that has been dissolved in fluid] over an hour. 

·         In neonates, a 4.2% solution is used, while

·         In pediatric patients and adults, an 8.4% solution is standard. 

·          The amount of infuse can be calculated according to the following formula:


HCO3- mEq = kg * (15 - observed HCO3-) * 0.5


·          Before administration of bicarbonate, check the serum potassium as addition of HCO3- will result in an intracellular potassium shift, further lowering serum potassium with potential neuromuscular and cardiac consequences

·          Remember that administration of sodium bicarbonate represents a significant sodium load, so account for that in terms of other fluids which are administered. 

·          Also consider that administration of bicarbonate will potentially worsen the situation for a patient who is retaining CO2.  Since the bicarbonate will be converted to CO2, in the long run it can worsen a respiratory acidosis [when it is being used as a blood buffer (not as a stomach buffer)]

·           A better agent in this case would be THAM."

NetScut: Acidosis


·           Nutrition: Electrolytes: What to Look For: Buffers (stomach buffers, not blood buffers)



·          "Not smoking -- or quitting if you smoke -- can prevent the development of many severe lung diseases that can lead to respiratory acidosis.

·          Obese patients may prevent obesity hypoventilation syndrome by losing weight."

Medline Plus: Medical Encyclopedia: Respiratory Acidosis


Related Topics

·           Exercise: Aerobic Exercise

·           Vision: Bates Method: Blinking and Breathing



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